Citation: Islands on Titan may actually be bubble streams (2017, April 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-04-islands-titan-streams.html (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from several institutions in France and Mexico has developed computer models that simulate conditions on Saturn’s largest moon Titan showing that some of the islands on the planet’s surface may be made of bubble streams. In their paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the team describes how they built their model and explain how bubble streams could form on the surface of Titan. More information: Daniel Cordier et al. Bubble streams in Titan’s seas as a product of liquid N2 + CH4 + C2H6 cryogenic mixture, Nature Astronomy (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-017-0102AbstractTitan, Saturn’s largest moon, is the only extraterrestrial body known to support stable liquid on its surface, in the form of seas and lakes that dot the polar regions. Many indications suggest that the liquid should be composed of a mixture of nitrogen, methane and ethane. Recent observations by Cassini’s Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) instrument of Titan’s large sea, called Ligeia Mare, have shown unexplained and ephemeral bright features, possibly due to rising bubbles. Here we report that our numerical model, when combined with experimental data found in the literature, shows that Ligeia Mare’s bed is a favourable place for nitrogen exsolution. This process could produce centimetre-sized and RADAR-detectable bubbles. Journal information: Nature Astronomy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. It has been noted that if the bubble theory is correct, it would mean having to design a subsurface vehicle to deal with them if such a probe were ever sent to Titan. Explore further True-color image of layers of haze in Titan’s atmosphere. Credit: NASA Experiments show Titan lakes may fizz with nitrogen Radar images from Cassini showed a strange island-like feature in one of Titan’s hydrocarbon seas that appeared to change over time (series of images at left). Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell © 2017 Phys.org Prior research has suggested that the seas that exist on Titan are likely made of methane at or near the surface and ethane at greater depth and that the moon’s atmosphere is likely mostly nitrogen. Also, prior research that involved studying images sent back by the Cassini space probe showed islands in some of the moon’s seas appearing and disappearing over time. Study of such islands showed that they were not due to changes in sea levels, which led some to theorize that they were maybe nothing more than areas where bubbles were bursting as they percolated up from below. In this new effort, the researchers built computer models to find out if bubbles really could be the cause of the mysterious islands.To create their computer models, the researchers input data regarding Titan’s makeup and also used data supplied by oil and gas companies that describe the way underground fluids behave under great pressure here on Earth.The researchers report that their models showed that the islands could, indeed, be bubble streams, and offer an explanation of how it could happen. They suggest factors on Titan such as tides, wind or even changes in atmospheric temperatures could cause nitrogen from the atmosphere to mix with methane from the surface, which would then be pushed down into pools of ethane—the difference in pressure at varying depths would force the components to separate, causing the formation of nitrogen gas bubbles, which would naturally rise back up to the surface. They note also that such bubbles would be very reflective, which would explain why they would be picked up by Cassini’s sensors.
Adarsh Shastri, an Aam Aadmi Party MLA from Dwarka is now the Parliamentary Secretary (Information Technology) in Arvind Kejriwal’s team in Delhi. The former Sales Head of Apple India, Shastri has been entrusted to bring in Information Technology in various departments of Delhi government and convert the national Capital into a “Smart City”. He is also looking after the wi-fi project, one of the flagship
Kolkata: The state Self-Help Group and Self-Employment (SHG & SE) department has collaborated with the department of Correctional Services for a massive education drive through the process of vocational training programme for the inmates of the correctional homes across the state.”Our sole objective is to prevent recidivism and with this objective we have adopted the policy to train inmates of correctional homes in various trades to develop their skill & expertise, so that they get employment after their release,” said Ujjal Biswas, minister for Correctional Services department. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe West Bengal Swarojgar Corporation Ltd (WBSCL), an undertaking of the state SHG & SE department that imparts skill-based job oriented training to unemployed people will launch this programme in the correctional homes “Our main target group for the training will be those inmates who are slated to complete their prison term within a period of six months to one year. We will train them in a way so that they become self-reliant. Inmates, who will be trained under this programme, will get financial assistance after their release from correctional homes,” a senior official of WBSCL said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe inmates after their release will be linked with the flagship scheme — Swami Vivekananda Swanirbhar Karmasanasthan Prakalpa — to support them for self employment. Around 30 inmates from each of correctional home will receive training and will be awarded certificates after successful completion of the training. The superintendents of central and district correctional homes as well as the social welfare offices in the correctional homes has made a study on the vocation, depending upon the interest of the inmates. The WBSCL has already prepared a training calendar and have designated agencies for each of the 20 correctional homes which will come under the aegis of the training in the first phase. The agencies under the WBSCL who will impart the training will provide the necessary infrastructure and equipment of the programme. It may be mentioned that there are as many as 78 vocations in which the WBSCL provides training. The total cost for the project is around Rs 2 crore and for the first year it will involve Rs 1 crore. The WBSCL has sanctioned Rs 50 lakhs and deposited the same as advance to the West Bengal Prisoners Welfare Fund.